Author Archives: Admin

FAMP – FreeBSD, Apache, Mysql, and PHP

Here is a quick overview to properly do a FAMP install on FreeBSD 11.

I will be using the pkg system for this install, but first lets understand a little bit about pkg. For years, FreeBSD used the ports repository – a file tree that contained Makefiles and all the necessary info needed to build any software package from source. In recent years, FreeBSD has put more emphasize on precompiled packages, the pkg utility does just this, it downloads the latest version of the precompiled package and installs it. The syntax is simple:

# pkg install package_name

You can search by using the command:

# pkg search name

For example, “pkg search apache”, will return this list:

apache-ant-1.10.3 Java- and XML-based build tool, conceptually similar to make
apache-forrest-0.9 Tool for rapid development of small sites
apache-mode.el-2.0_1 Emacs major mode for editing Apache configuration files
apache-openoffice-4.1.5_6 Integrated wordprocessor/dbase/spreadsheet/drawing/chart/browser
apache-openoffice-devel-4.2.1833124,4 Integrated wordprocessor/dbase/spreadsheet/drawing/chart/browser (developer version)
apache-poi-3.15 Java API To Access Microsoft Format Files
apache-rat-0.12 Release audit tool
apache-solr-7.1.0 High performance search server built using Lucene Java
apache-solr3-3.6.2 High performance search server built using Lucene Java
apache-spark-2.1.1_1 Fast big data processing engine
apache-xml-security-c-1.7.3_1 Apache XML security libraries - C++ version
apache24-2.4.34 Version 2.4.x of Apache web server
apachetop-0.12.6_5 Apache realtime log stats
p5-Apache-ASP-2.63 Active Server Pages for Apache
p5-Apache-Admin-Config-0.95_1 Perl module to manipulate Apache configuration files
p5-Apache-AuthCookie-3.27 Perl module to provide custom forms for reauthentication

and so on…

When doing a pkg install, you only need the name portion not the full name with version number. So lets begin with our FAMP tutorial.

Step 1 – Install Apache

# pkg install apache24

Once this is completed, you need to add apache24_enable=”YES” to the /etc/rc.conf file. This can be done manually, or with the command:

# sysrc apache24_enable="YES"

Lastly, start apache with either “/usr/local/etc/rc.d/apache24 start” or “service apache24 start”

Step 2 – Install PHP

Which version? You’ll notice that “pkg search php” returns a few different options. For core PHP, your options are:


Lets assume you want the latest 7.2 stable, here is the install command, note in addition to PHP core I am going to install a few other popular PHP add-ons. These add-ons were in the output of “pkg search php72”.

# pkg install php72 php72-gd mod_php72 php72-mysqli php72-zlib

NOTE: If you wanted an older version, say 5.6, you would have used the command:

# pkg install php56 php56-gd mod_php56 php56-mysqli php56-zlib

Once PHP is installed, add the following to /usr/local/etc/apache/Includes/php.conf:

<IfModule dir_module>
    DirectoryIndex index.php index.html
    <FilesMatch "\.php$">
        SetHandler application/x-httpd-php
    <FilesMatch "\.phps$">
        SetHandler application/x-httpd-php-source

Its also important to install the proper php.ini file. The distribution comes with a sample production and development .ini file, choose the one thats appropriate and move it into position as follows:

# cp /usr/local/etc/php.ini-production /usr/local/etc/php.ini

Now lets test everything before we continue:

# echo '<?php phpinfo(); ?>' > /usr/local/www/apache24/data/phpinfo.php
# service apache24 restart

Visit your server via http://IP-ADDRESS/phpinfo.php and you should see something like this:

Step 3 – Install Mysql

Just as we have done before, we do a “pkg search mysql” and find several versions:


Lets go with version 5.7, so to install we do:

# pkg install mysql57-client mysql57-server

Next, we add the startup syntax to /etc/rc.conf and startup Mysql:

# sysrc mysql_enable="YES"
# service mysql-server start

Now that MySQL us running, we execute the following script:

# mysql_secure_installation

This script allows you to setup the initial root user password for access to mysql via the command line.

/56 Subnet – Delegating IPv6 Reverse Authority

Recently I had a client that wanted a /56 IPv6 WAN range. The idea behind this was he wanted to be able to provision multiple /64’s within his /56 to assign to clients.

Before we go any further, lets clarify what a /56 is, I will use the following sample range:


This is really the range of IPs from 2600:AB00:1000:2000:0000:0000:0000:0000 through 2600:AB00:1000:20FF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF, in other words, its 256 /64s. Delegating reverse authority of this beast is not so straight forward. Here is how we do it in BIND v9.

The most difficult aspect of this is the /56 delegation has to occur from within the /32 zone file. Huh? So if you were only ever doing DNS yourself (no delegation), you probably never created a zone for the /32, instead you just had all your /64 zone files as is. You can’t declare a /56 in-arpa zone file and delegate, it has to be done from the newly created /32. But dont worry, the /32 will have a catch all that redirects everything back to itself, so all your existing /64’s zones will be fine, no changes needed.

So sticking with the above ranges, assume we are an ISP, our /32 is 2600:AB00::/32, our DNS servers are ns1 and Furthermore, say we have a client with a /64 of 2600:AB00:1234:4000::/64 and we do the DNS for them (no delegation), then lastly, we have client /56 of 2600:AB00:1000:2000::/56 that is going to be delegated to their name servers, ns1 and

Assume this is a watered down config snippet, we’re just showing the pertinent info. Here is my master BIND config file showing the zone declarations:

zone "" {
type master;
file "/etc/bind/master/";

zone "" {
type master;
file "/etc/bind/master/";

The first zone is my /64 client, here is that zone file with some sample PTRs:

$TTL 3600
@ IN SOA (
2014022621 ; Serial
10800 ; Refresh
3600 ; Retry
2419200 ; Expire
604800 ) ; Default TTL


The second zone is the /32 zone, and this is where we do the delegation for the /56 and the catch all for everything else, see below:

$TTL 3600
@ IN SOA (
2018080107 ; Serial
10800 ; Refresh
3600 ; Retry
2419200 ; Expire
604800 ) ; Default TTL


So looking at this zone file, the first two NS lines is the catch all, basically, anything that doesn’t match below will delegate back to itself. This is why my /64 zone in the master config will work. But we do match the /56 that needs delegation, and its forwarded to those 3rd party NS servers.

Filtering outbound BGP announcements in Cisco IOS

We previously looked at a sample BGP setup for a Cisco 6500 series router. What if you have multiple BGP peers and want to restrict which prefixes or IP blocks you announce to which peers. Simple. We can use the prefix-list command.

What you announce to each BGP peer will effect the traffic that comes in. So sometimes filtering what you announce can help shape your inbound traffic usage, or it can be used to limit one of your peers to very little traffic so you have a backdoor option during a high load event or DDoS.
Lets look at a sample BGP config:

router bgp 17500
bgp log-neighbor-changes
neighbor remote-as 1000
neighbor ebgp-multihop 5
neighbor update-source GigabitEthernet5/8
neighbor remote-as 2000
neighbor ebgp-multihop 5
neighbor update-source GigabitEthernet4/8
address-family ipv4
neighbor activate
neighbor next-hop-self
neighbor send-community
neighbor soft-reconfiguration inbound
neighbor prefix-list PeerA-out out
neighbor filter-list 1 in
neighbor filter-list 15 out
neighbor activate
neighbor next-hop-self
neighbor send-community
neighbor soft-reconfiguration inbound
neighbor prefix-list PeerB-out out
neighbor filter-list 1 in
neighbor filter-list 15 out

My ASN is 17500 and I have two BGP uplinks, one to AS 1000 (we’ll call this Peer A) and one to AS 2000 (we’ll call this Peer B). I am announcing the following prefixes:

As you can see, for each peer, I have included a statement with

    prefix-list “LIST-NAME” out

This statement restricts what my ASN will broadcast OUT to my peers. Lets say I want to BGP announce all three prefixes to Peer A, but I only want to announce to Peer B. This is what those respective prefix-list’s will look like:

ip prefix-list PeerA-out seq 1 permit
ip prefix-list PeerA-out seq 2 permit
ip prefix-list PeerA-out seq 3 permit
ip prefix-list PeerA-out seq 100 deny
ip prefix-list PeerB-out seq 1 permit
ip prefix-list PeerB-out seq 100 deny

Thats all there is to it.

How is FreeBSD different then Linux

This article gives a basic overview of the major differences between FreeBSD and Linux with regards to IP networking, application installs, and starting/stopping services. The assumption is the reader has a good basic understanding of Linux to start of with. We will cover three areas: 1) IP networking, 2) package installation, and 3) starting/stopping services both manually and automated.
IP Networking
I have covered IP settings in previous articles pertaining to Centos and Debian. Debian uses the /etc/system/interfaces file, and Centos uses the /etc/sysconfig/networking-scripts/if-eth0 file.
FreeBSD is different. Everything is in /etc/rc.conf – not just IP settings but everything pertaining to the entire system is in /etc/rc.conf. Thats sounds great right? Basically, FreeBSD has /etc/defaults/rc.conf which contains everything for default settings, but whatever it sees in /etc/rc.conf at bootup overrides the default. Here is the sample rc.conf syntax for basic IP settings:
ifconfig_em0=" netmask up"

And for IPv6 add the additional lines:
ipv6_network_interfaces="lo0 em0"

In this case our network interface is em0 – we know that from bootup or by looking at the output of dmesg command. Name resolution is still controlled by /etc/resolv.conf as it is in Linux. If you want to add IPv4 aliases, the rc.conf syntax is:
ifconfig_em0_alias0=” netmask″
ifconfig_em0_alias1=” netmask″
ifconfig_em0_alias2=” netmask″
Software Package Installation
In Linux, apt-get and yum are the common tools for adding packages. FreeBSD has a completely different way of doing this. There are two main ways to add software packages: 1) the ports repository, or 2) the sysinstall utility.
The ports repository is a large directly/file tree located in /usr/ports – under that directory there are categories, like /usr/ports/databases, and within the category directory you will find the individual packages, like /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-server. The install the package you go into the packages directory (i.e. /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-server) and run “make && make install”. This will download the most recent tarball, applying system specific patches, compile, and then install the package. If the package has configurable options, a TEXT GUI will pop-up asking you to make those optional selections.
Obviously, the ports to work you need to have the most recent /usr/ports or even have it at all. If you did not install it when creating the system, you can always add it later using the sysinstall utility – /usr/sbin/sysinstall.
sysinstall is a TEXT GUI system that allows you to do many things (too many for me to describe), one of those things is adding distributions. If you dont have /usr/ports installed, go into sysinstall, select “Configuration”, then select “Distributions”, then scroll down and select “Ports”. When you continue from there, it will ask where to install from and you can select the FreeBSD FTP servers to install over the network.
While inside the sysinstall utility you may notice that the utility itself can be used to install software packages. From the main screen, select “Configure”, then select “Packages”. You can now browse through the same category tree and select, for example, Databases -> Mysql 5.1 Server. When you continue through the process, you will again be asked from where to install and you can select the FreeBSD FTP servers.
A sysinstall package add is different then a ports add because the package is not compiled, rather, a pre-compiled package is downloaded and installed.
System Services – Starting, Stopping, Automation
Lastly, how do you start and stop services and set services for automatic start at bootup? Again, this is vastly different then Linux methods, but again, its all covered in /etc/rc.conf. First, the actual scripts for starting and stopping services that have been been added via ports or the sysinstall package system will always be located in /usr/local/etc/rc.d – the exception being core OS services which are located in /etc/rc.d – things like nfsserver or sendmail (on FreeBSD sendmail is a core base service).
So if you have installed apache22, starting and stopping is done by:
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/apache22 stop
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/apache22 start
What about automation? That is done in rc.conf as follows:
99% of the time the name of the script located in /usr/local/etc/rc.d is the syntax for the above _enable statement, but there are cases where it differs. To be sure, open up the init script located in /usr/local/etc/rc.d and look for its “name” directive which is located near the top. The name is the service name. Oddly enough, mysql is a culprit of this. The mysql service name is mysql, but the init script in /usr/local/etc/rc.d is named mysql-server, so if you added mysql-server_enable=”YES” to /etc/rc.conf it would not work, it has to be mysql_enable=”YES”.

TCP/IP Networking in Linux without a GUI

There are a few major Linux distributions these days, Centos/RHES, Ubuntu, and Debian. They all differ slightly in how they natively handle IP configuration.
For starters, lets first understand the universal way to IP config ANY Linux OS (this also applies to BSD Unix and Solaris). This is done with the ifconfig and route command. ifconfig places an IP address on an interface and route places the default gateway in the routing table. When using ifconfig you just need to know the interface name, if you dont know the interface name, simple type the command:
ifconfig -a
This will display all the connected interfaces, so if you have two NICs on your server it may list an eth0 and eth1. For our example, lets assume we are connecting a Cat5 cable to eth0 and we want to configure the following network setup:
IP Address:
Default Gateway:

The IP configuration is handled by the following command:
ifconfig eth0 netmask up
To add the default gateway, we use the following command:
route add default gw
Obviously, if you reboot the system these settings will be lost. So now lets look at how to manually config the IP settings for bootup. Both Debian and Ubuntu use the same setup, it involves editing the interfaces file. CentOS/RHES is a bit different, we’ll cover that one last.
For Ubuntu/Debian, edit the file /etc/network/interfaces and add the following lines:
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static

The broadcast and network entries are technically not needed, but you might as well add them. After you save this file, use the ifup command to activate and bring up the eth0 interface:
ifup eth0
Finally, make sure you edit /etc/resolv.conf and add your DNS resolvers, the syntax is as follows:

Lets take a look at Centos/RHES and how they configure IP networking. Instead of using a singular config file, each interface has its own file located in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts and the file name format is ifcfg-INT where INT is the name of your interface. In our example, our interface is eth0, so the file we will be editing is /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 and the contents of that file is as below:


Again, some of the above lines are not required, HWADDR, NETWORK, and BROADCAST are not required but definitely add them if you know them. The HWADDR is the interfaces MAC Address, which you can find out by typing “ifconfig eth0”. The default gateway setting in CentOS/RHES is handled in a separate file. Edit the file /etc/sysconfig/network and add the following lines:

Once the files are edited, you again run the command “ifup eth0” to bring up the interface. The default gateway and hostname settings will be active on reboot, otherwise you have to restart networking for those changes to take effect, this is done by running:

/etc/init.d/network restart

Configuring SSL VPN on Cisco ASA

Starting a few years ago, Cisco began to phase out their support of the long standing VPN Client software which used IPsec. Basically, they didn’t make a 64-bit version to run on Windows 7 and 8, so unless you use XP, its very hard to use the old Cisco VPN client software. The replacement is AnyConnect, which can be launched via the web. AnyConnect does not use IPsec for the vpn tunnel, it uses SSL. The downside is it requires additional licensing, most ASA’s only come with 1 SSLVPN user license, and 10 IPSec.
Here is how you configure a typical ASA (running IOS 8.3) to use webvpn and AnyConnect.
1. The outside or public WAN IP of the ASA is
2. The inside or local access range is
3. The VPN IP pool that we will create is
Here is the complete config with some comments.
Create and apply a nonat access list:
ASA(config)# access-list nonat extended permit ip
ASA(config)# nat (inside) 0 access-list nonat

Define a split tunnel access list:

ASA(config)# access-list splitvpn standard permit

Define the Group Policy for the WebVPN:

ASA(config)# group-policy SSLVPN_POLICY internal
ASA(config)# group-policy SSLVPN_POLICY attributes
ASA(config-group-policy)# vpn-tunnel-protocol svc webvpn
ASA(config-group-policy)# webvpn
ASA(config-group-webvpn)# split-tunnel-policy tunnelspecified
ASA(config-group-webvpn)# split-tunnel-network-list value splitvpn
ASA(config-group-webvpn)# split-dns value
ASA(config-group-webvpn)# dns-server value X.X.X.X

In the above case, would be your local DNS search suffix. The X.X.X.X would be the IP of your local DNS server if you used one, if not you can leave it out or insert a public DNS server IP like
Define a DHCP pool for the clients to use:
ASA(config)# ip local pool vpnpool mask
Define a local user to use for the VPN:
ASA(config)# username johndoe password ABC123 privilege 0
ASA(config)# username johndoe attributes
ASA(config-username)# vpn-group-policy SSLVPN_POLICY

Enable WebVPN:
ASA(config)# webvpn
ASA(config-webvpn)# enable outside
ASA(config-webvpn)# svc image disk0:/anyconnect-win-2.5.2014-k9.pkg 1
ASA(config-webvpn)# svc image disk0:/anyconnect-macosx-i386-2.5.2014-k9.pkg 2
ASA(config-webvpn)# svc enable

The above location/filename of the AnyConnect software may vary, to verify just type the “dir” command from the main prompt to see a file listing showing the exact filename versions.
Define the tunnel group:
ASA(config)# Tunnel-group SSLVPN_TUNNEL type remote-access
ASA(config)# Tunnel-group SSLVPN_TUNNEL general-attributes
ASA(config-tunnel-general)# default-group-policy SSLVPN_POLICY
ASA(config-tunnel-general)# address-pool vpnpool

Link the tunnel group to WebVPN:

ASA(config)# webvpn
ASA(config-webvpn)# tunnel-group-list enable
ASA(config-webvpn)# exit
ASA(config)# tunnel-group SSLVPN_TUNNEL webvpn-attributes
ASA(config-tunnel-webvpn)# group-alias AnyConnect enable

Basic Cisco Router Config with BGP Uplink

Do you have your own /24 IP subnet and want to setup a BGP router? This article will gave a basic overview of the key components required. The syntax used is for an IOS 12.2 Cisco 6500 series, but is applicable to a 7600 series, a 7200 series, or even a 1800 or 2800 series router.
1. The /24 subnet we are announcing is
2. The IPv4 WAN Subnet from our upstream BGP provider is
3. Upstream BGP peer’s AS is 1000, and our AS is 17500
So to begin, we assume our BGP uplink is delivered to us via a basic Cat5 handoff. This handoff has a static WAN subnet of – our side of the WAN is and the provider’s side of the WAN is That also means our default GW is
We connect this Cat5 uplink to FastEthernet7/1 on our 6500. Now we need to go into the 6500 series router, config the WAN link, then do all the BGP configs so we can start using our /24 subnet.
We login with enable access and go to configuration mode:
Cisco6500# config -t
We know setup the WAN link:
Cisco6500(config)# interface FastEthernet7/1
Cisco6500(config)# desc BGP Uplink
Cisco6500(config)# ip address
Cisco6500(config)# no shutdown

We set the default route:
Cisco6500(config)# ip route 250
At this point our router is live and we should be able to ping out to the internet. In order to use our own /24 and AS we need to setup a BGP session with our upstream, let get started:

Cisco6500(config)# router bgp 17500

The above effectively “creates” the BGP service on our end acting as AS 17500, we now need to config it. We are inside the router statement, so every command from this point on effects only the BGP config. We have to exit out to return to the main config.
Cisco6500(config-router)# bgp log-neighbor-changes
Cisco6500(config-router)# neighbor remote-as 1000
Cisco6500(config-router)# neighbor ebgp-multihop 5
Cisco6500(config-router)# neighbor password ABC123

Quick recap of the above. We are telling our BGP service about our first neighbor or “peer”. The peer address is the WAN side IP of our upstream, we specify that our peers AS is 1000, we specify a BGP session password (this is optional, and must be configured to match on the other end), the ebgp-multihop 5 entry is also potentially optional, but I like to add it just in case there are any hops between myself and my peer.
Now we configure the IPv4 portion of the BGP config. In order to do that, we go one more level down in the config by entering the following:

Cisco6500(config-router)# address-family ipv4

This puts you into a sub-config menu, and your prompy will change. From here we can add the IP details of our BGP session:
Cisco6500(config-router-af)# neighbor activate
Cisco6500(config-router-af)# neighbor next-hop-self
Cisco6500(config-router-af)# neighbor send-community
Cisco6500(config-router-af)# neighbor soft-reconfiguration inbound
Cisco6500(config-router-af)# neighbor filter-list 1 in
Cisco6500(config-router-af)# neighbor filter-list 15 out

The first line activates IPv4 on the session. The next three lines are pretty basic and normal. The soft-reconfiguration line is required if you want to be able to do soft resets of the BGP session to grab updates from the other side or vice versa. The last two lines are tricky, but basically, the control what we will allow in and what we allow out from our router. I will describe these filter lists below after we are down with the main BGP config. The following lines finish out out IPv4 portion of the config:

Cisco6500(config-router-af)# no auto-summary
Cisco6500(config-router-af)# no synchronization
Cisco6500(config-router-af)# network mask

The last line here is our IPv4 announcement. Now we exit out of the address-family sub-config, and the bgp router sub-config:
Cisco6500(config-router-af)# exit
Cisco6500(config-router)# exit

This returns us to the menu config menu. At this point our BGP session is 95% percent complete, just a few loose ends to finish up. Mainly, we have to create those in and out filter lists rules for the BGP prefixes we will allow in and out. We add the following:
Cisco6500(config)# ip as-path access-list 1 permit .*
Cisco6500(config)# ip as-path access-list 15 permit ^$
Cisco6500(config)# ip as-path access-list 15 permit ^(17500_)+$

Access list 1 basically permits everything in, which is want we want. Access list 15 permits our AS 17500 to go out. Last but not least, we need to locally null route our IP announcement:

Cisco6500(config)# ip route Null0 250
Cisco6500(config)# exit
Cisco6500(config)# write mem

At this point our BGP router is live, you can verify with the following command:
Cisco6500# sh ip bgp summary
BGP router identifier, local AS number 17500
BGP table version is 27807253, main routing table version 27807253
187089 network entries using 18895989 bytes of memory
203251 path entries using 9756048 bytes of memory
48641 BGP path attribute entries using 2724008 bytes of memory
39260 BGP AS-PATH entries using 1076272 bytes of memory
58 BGP community entries using 1392 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
61132 BGP filter-list cache entries using 733584 bytes of memory
BGP using 33187293 total bytes of memory
8 received paths for inbound soft reconfiguration
BGP activity 4186733/3980758 prefixes, 6186177/5962957 paths, scan interval 60 secs
Neighbor V AS MsgRcvd MsgSent TblVer InQ OutQ Up/Down State/PfxRcd 4 1000 10948679 267030 27806888 0 0 7w2d 174293

With your BGP router live and running, you can start using your IP space on any interface by simply assign a subnet of your choosing, for example:
Cisco6500(config)# interface FastEthernet7/2
Cisco6500(config)# desc Mail Server
Cisco6500(config)# ip address
Cisco6500(config)# no shutdown

This creates a subnet on interface 7/2 with acting as the default gateway. Simply connect a server to that port and it will be live with a usable IP in the .2 through .6 (.7 is reserved for the broadcast).

Enabling SSH Access on Cisco ASA Appliances

It is very important to access your ASA via SSH and not telnet. Even if you only enable access from your inside interface, this will protect from clear text password scanning on your local network via an undetected malware bot.
For this example, we are enabling SSH on our inside interface network (
To get started, enter configuration mode:
asa# config t
Make sure you have an enable password set, in the case TEXT is your clear text enable password:
asa(config)# enable password TEXT
Now we create a local user for SSH login, in this case the username is admin with password ABC123:
asa(config)# aaa authentication ssh console LOCAL
asa(config)# username admin password ABC123 privilege 15
Allow access from our inside network:
asa(config)# ssh inside
And finally, generate an RSA key:
asa(config)# domain-name
asa(config)# crypto key generate rsa modulus 1024

Its an important to note, you have to specify a domain name in order to generate a functional RSA key. Also, if you wanted to enable SSH access from the outside, you would use the following line:
asa(config)# ssh outside
In this case, I am only allowing SSH from a singular IP address of for say a home office.